Summer is hot: in July and August, the average maximum temperature is 31/32 °C (88/90 °F), but on hotter periods it can easily rise to around 35/36 °C (95/97 °F). Annual temperature ranges are generally smaller than those found in marine west coast climates, since locations on the western sides of continents are not well positioned to receive the coldest polar air, which develops over land rather than over the ocean. In places such as the Sacramento Valley and Oxnard Plain in California, draining marshes and estuaries combined with supplemental irrigation has led to a century of intensive agriculture. The latitudes for the Mediterranean climate vary from 30 degrees to 45 degrees. Mediterranean climates are very rare overall. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The largest area with a mediterranean climate is the Mediterranean Basin, which has given the climate its name, although stretches of the Mediterranean coast (in Egypt, Libya and part of Tunisia) are too dry to be thus classified. Very few places experience snow in a Mediterranean climate. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). In Thessaloniki, there is an average of one day out of three with freezing nights. We look forward to showing you More of the World for Less on your next vacation. Under the Köppen climate classification, "dry-summer subtropical" climates (classified as Csa and Csb) are often referred to as "Mediterranean". The resulting vegetation of Mediterranean climates are the garrigue or maquis in the Mediterranean Basin, the chaparral in California, the fynbos in South Africa, the mallee in Australia, and the matorral in Chile. Similar to desert climates, in many Mediterranean climates there is a strong diurnal character to daily temperatures in the warm summer months due to strong heating during the day from sunlight and rapid cooling at night. 1. Particularly distinctive of the climate are sclerophyll shrublands, called maquis in the Mediterranean Basin, chaparral in California, matorral in Chile, fynbos in South Africa, and mallee and kwongan shrublands in Australia. [1][2] The third letter indicates the degree of summer heat: "a" represents an average temperature in the warmest month above 22 °C (72 °F), while "b" indicates the average temperature in the warmest month below 22 °C (72 °F). Small areas with a Csc climate can also be found at high elevations in Corsica. Although snow is rare in a Mediterranean climate, some places located farther north, such as Madrid, can experience annual snowfall and frost. Below are average maximum temperatures at popular destinations in the Mediterranean for next month - January. Tuel and Eltahir found that this projected drying of the Mediterranean region is a result of the confluence of two different effects of a warming climate: a change in the dynamics of upper atmosphere circulation and a reduction in the temperature difference between land and sea. The Mediterranean is seperated from the Atlantic Ocean by the Straits of Gibraltar. [10][11], The native vegetation of Mediterranean climate lands must be adapted to survive long, hot summer droughts and prolonged wet periods in winter. In the Köppen-Geiger-Pohl system, it is divided into the Csa and Csb subtypes. Rainfall can exceed 1000 mm per year and is less frequent in summer. The salinity of the Mediterranean is uniformly high throughout the basin. Figures 6 - 9 show average temperatures and precipitation for the cities of across the southern part of the Mediterranean. It includes the climate of much of the land near the Mediterranean Sea. A Mediterranean climate gets its name from the Mediterranean Basin, where this type of weather is most common. Furthermore, summer is very dry, and winter, on the contrary, is rather humid. It is believed that 5.3 million years ago a dramatic flood filled the Mediterranean basin as water flowed through these narrow straits. The Mediterranean climate is characterized by dry and hot summer and cold and rainy winter. On the colder temperate side of the line, the total flora is adapted to survive periods of variable length of low temperatures, whether as seeds in the case of the annuals or as perennial plants which can withstand the cold. The three sub-types of Mediterranean climate are distinguished by their summer temperatures: cold, warm, and hot. The only connection of the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic and then the global ocean is the Strait of Gibraltar, in which there are warm (15.4°C) and fresh (36.2 psu) waters that enter the Mediterranean Sea at the surface and cold (13°C) and salty (38.4 psu) waters that quit the Mediterranean Sea in sublayers. Much native vegetation in Mediterranean climate area valleys have been cleared for agriculture. In Chile and Spain these Mediterranean shrub communities are called matorral, in France it is called maquis and in Italy, macchia. Temperature of coldest month is less than 18⁰ C but greater than –3⁰ C 4. Mediterranean Climate (Cs) chaparral biome This is a wet-winter, dry-summer climate. In the Trewartha climate classification system, the cooler summer Csb zones in the Köppen system become Do or temperate oceanic climate. The cold variant is only found in a handful of places in the world, none of which produce wine. Only in Europe, where the latitude for this climate type fortuitously corresponds to an ocean basin (that of the Mediterranean Sea, from which this climate derives its name), does this climate type extend eastward away from the coast for any significant distance. McMahon, "Updated World Map of the Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification," Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 11:1633–44 (2007). Climate is not extremebecause of cooling from water bodies. Updates? A rare instance of this climate occurs in the tropics, on Haleakalā Summit in Hawaii. The climate of Los Angeles is subtropical, characterized by very mild, relatively rainy winters and hot, sunny summers. Below are average maximum temperatures at popular destinations in the Mediterranean for next month - January. Also, at least four months must av­er­age above 10 °C (… Csb zones in the Köppen system include areas normally not associated with Mediterranean climates but with Oceanic climates, such as much of the Pacific Northwest, much of southern Chile, parts of west-central Argentina, and parts of New Zealand. Because most regions with a Mediterranean climate are near large bodies of water, temperatures are generally moderate, with a comparatively small range of temperatures between the winter low and summer high (although the daily range of temperature during the summer is large due to dry and clear conditions, except along the immediate coasts). The regions are located in the western parts of the continent between 30 and 45 degrees north and south of the equator. 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