This effect was specific to social interactions: Interfering with the ventral CA1 did not have any effect on the mice’s ability to recognize objects or locations that they had previously seen. SCAN accepts high quality papers related to neuroscience techniques to understand social cognition, social behavior, and affective processes. Mankin et al. A quantitative analysis of the dendritic organization of pyramidal cells in the rat hippocampus. These terminals mainly arise from the entorhinal cortex. 1. Eur. Neurol. J. Neurosci. Rev. Neurosci. Researchers use Raman spectroscopy for early detection of SAS, which can help farmers better monitor plant health and improve crop yields. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2004.10.010, van der Kooij, M. A., and Sandi, C. (2012). doi: 10.1016/0304-3940(90)90750-4, Benes, F. M., Kwok, E. W., Vincent, S. L., and Todtenkopf, M. S. (1998). This finding indicated that, while the CA2 contains a slew of proteins that may contribute to the failure of LTP induction, these synapses nonetheless possess the intracellular machinery necessary for LTP induction, but that higher calcium buffering and extrusion prevents plasticity (Simons et al., 2009). Neuroanatomical features that distinguish the CA2 region from the CA3 and CA1. (2016) used optogenetics to excite vassopressin terminals, originating from the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, in the CA2 to explore the involvement of AVPR1b-expressing neurons in the CA2. This module provides an overview of the new field of social neuroscience, which combines the use of neuroscience methods and theories to understand how other people influence our thoughts, feelings, and behavior. Social recognition in humans and primates relies on the use of visual and auditory cues, with the right fusiform gyrus being responsible for coding information pertaining to the physical characteristics of an individual. New insights into the regulation of synaptic plasticity from an unexpected place: hippocampal area CA2. MH commented and edited the manuscript. Pyramidal cells within the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of the CA2 receive strong spatial input from cells in layers II and III of the medial entorhinal cortex, along with non-spatial information from layers II and III of the lateral entorhinal cortex (Figure 6B). Doctrine of multilevel analysis. Neuroscience research articles are provided. Schizophr. The most dorsal aspect of the mossy fiber projection (asterisk) is adjacent to the CA2, PEP-19 staining pattern. (A,B) Adapted from Cheung TH, Cardinal RN. J. Neurosci. Hippocampus 6, 601–620. or the environment in which the conspecific was initially encountered could ostensibly create errors in recognition. C.M. Electrophysiological characterization of CA2 pyramidal cells from epileptic humans. Learn. doi: 10.1002/cne.903070308, Young, W. S., Li, J., Wersinger, S. R., and Palkovits, M. (2006). doi: 10.1073/pnas.1005362107, Letty, S., Child, R., Dumuis, A., Pantaloni, A., Bockaert, J., and Rondouin, G. (1997). High-frequency stimulation of CA3 region, activating the Schaffer collateral inputs to the CA1, creates a robust potentiation within the CA1 region, inducing and sustaining LTP (Caruana et al., 2012). Figure 5. Neuron 65, 768–779. Hippocampal and nonhippocampal contributions to place learning in rats. doi: 10.1016/0959-4388(93)90214-j, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Amaral, D. G., and Witter, M. P. (1989). Stimulation of adenosine A1 receptors activates potassium channels and inhibits calcium channels, both of which result in a hyperpolarization of hippocampal neurons. Therefore, inactivation of the CA2 would ablate the AVPR1b-driven associations between both components (Stevenson and Caldwell, 2014). Brain Res. (2007) was that CA2 pyramidal neurons expressed calbindin, a calcium-binding protein found in inhibitory interneurons that can regulate synaptic plasticity. The base of the apical dendrites protruding from the CA2 neurons is less clear (boxed area) suggesting these dendrites are not in the coronal plane. Two-Trial Social Memory Test. Green staining shows axonal terminal fields in the stratum lacunosum moleculare (SLM) of the CA1, CA2, and CA3 subfields and the molecular layer (ML) of the dentate gyrus. Behav. Trends Neurosci. doi: 10.1016/0006-8993(89)90567-2, Williamson, A., and Spencer, D. D. (1994). A three-chamber social novelty test was used to compare performance between control mice, expressing YFP in CA2 pyramidal neurons, and CA2-TeNT mice. While the other subunits of the hippocampus have received extensive attention, the CA2 region has been largely neglected, poorly understood, and for the most part, unexplained (Chevaleyre and Siegelbaum, 2010; Caruana et al., 2012; Cui et al., 2013; Stevenson and Caldwell, 2014). doi: 10.1002/cne.23263, de Mendonca, A., and Ribeiro, J. The CA2 region possesses certain ‘memory inhibiting’ genes, of which one is RGS14. These patterns could be seen even after the mice appeared to “forget” the once-familiar mice. 13, 222–238. Brain Res. Physiol. doi: 10.1101/lm.725207, Witter, M. P., and Amaral, D. G. (1991). II. (2007). Figure 1. Targeted activation of the hippocampal CA2 area strongly enhances social memory. Effects of long-term estrogen replacement on social investigation and social memory in ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice. Larry Young, a professor of psychiatry and director of the Center for Translational Social Science at Emory University, described the study as “one of the most fascinating papers related to social neuroscience I’ve ever seen.”, “In this paper, they identified a subset of cells in a particular brain region that is the engram — a set of cells that through its connections in the nucleus accumbens, actually holds the memory of another individual,” says Young, who was not involved in the study. As such, this processing would require more advanced circuitry and integration from other regions, and not rely solely on a dentate gyrus-CA2 connection to discriminate between all the different pieces of incoming information. Based on the presented investigations, the evidence supports the hypothesis that the CA2 plays in integral role in the temporal and contextual processing of information. Physiol. Social recognition memory in animals is essential for social hierarchy, mate and offspring recognition, territorial defense, interspecies recognition, and for the general establishment and maintenance of groups (Ferguson et al., 2002; Jacobs et al., 2016). Impact Factor 2.512 | CiteScore 4.1More on impact ›, University Medical Centre, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany. J. Comp. Massachusetts Institute of Technology77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA, USA. While social recognition is a common process across a variety of mammals, there are species and sex differences which may influence how it is expressed (van der Kooij and Sandi, 2012). It requires integration of multimodal sensory information with output from limbic circuits and those that encode memory of prior social experiences (2015) used a familiarized change in the shape of the box (Dudek et al., 2016). Induction of LTP was still absent when GABAA inhibitory currents were blocked using picrotoxin, yet all of these protocols consistently induced LTP in the CA1 (Zhao et al., 2007; Caruana et al., 2012). May 14, 2014 - In humans, the importance of the hippocampus for social memory was famously illustrated by the case of Henry Molaison, who had much of his hippocampus removed by surgeons in 1953 in an attempt to cure “You can change the perception and the behavior of the test mouse by either inhibiting or activating the ventral CA1 cells,” says Susumu Tonegawa, the Picower Professor of Biology and Neuroscience and director of the RIKEN-MIT Center for Neural Circuit Genetics at the Picower Institute for Learning and Memory. Kainic acid seizures in the rat. Social memories in rodents: methods, mechanisms and modulation by stress. (2000). Administration of an estrogen α receptor agonist impaired social recognition, while administration of an estrogen β receptor agonist prolonged it. Eur. The Two-Trial Social Memory test assesses cognition, namely the ability to recognize novel versus familiar animals, in rodent models of CNS disorders. Over the course of multiple exposures, rodents will become habituated to an intruder and no longer find them as interesting as a completely novel intruder. It is a scaffolding protein that integrates G protein and H-Ras/ERK/MAP kinase signaling pathways (Lee et al., 2010). When these neurons were re-activated with light 24 hours later, the memory of the once-familiar mouse returned. The major signaling pathways through the hippocampal subfields. 110, 611–646. Together with the temporal processing of information, the CA2 can be viewed as processing the general ‘when, where, and what’ aspects of social recognition. Thus, the impairment of the CA2 region and subsequent ablation of social recognition provides evidence for the crucial role the CA2 has in social cognition (Hitti and Siegelbaum, 2014). (2000) also provided evidence to suggest that the hippocampus plays a role in social memory. The stratum lucidum, which is found exclusively in the CA3 field between the pyramidal cell layer and the stratum radiatum (Figure 4), contains mossy fibers from the granule cells of the dentate gyrus (Witter and Amaral, 1991; Andersen et al., 2007). The dentate gyrus (Figure 2) receives multiple sensory inputs, including olfactory, auditory, and visual, from both the perirhinal and entorhinal cortices, along with spatially organized grid cells from the entorhinal cortex (Figure 2). Biol. 47, 350–357. Taken together, these results suggest that CA2 acts as a regulator of network processing within the hippocampus, creating a balance between excitatory and inhibitory processes required for proper network function, and preventing the hippocampus from entering a state of pathological activity. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.201079, Mankin, E. A., Diehl, G. W., Sparks, F. T., Leutgeb, S., and Leutgeb, J. K. (2015). Physiol. Neuroscience research articles are provided. 3 P. 22. J. Comp. Given that both schizophrenia and manic-depressive disorders present with different clinical presentations and unique pathophysiologies, there is unlikely to be a strictly genetic explanation for the reduction in non-pyramidal neurons observed, but perhaps an environmental one. Vasopressin V1b receptor knockout reduces aggressive behavior in male mice. Overview of the rat hippocampus. Rev. Control mice spent significantly more time investigating the stimulus mouse in the first trial than CA2-lesioned animals. These chunks of memory are encoded separately from the neural code that stores detailed memories of a specific experience. Our neuroscience laboratories … Slices in which ChR2 was co-expressed with TeNT in CA2 pyramidal neurons produced little to no synaptic response in CA1 neurons when CA2 neurons were illuminated (Hitti and Siegelbaum, 2014). Axons of CA1 pyramidal neurons project into the septum, hypothalamus, and contralateral hippocampus via the fimbria (Andersen et al., 1971). You will be treated by an integrated team that includes a physician or advanced practice clinician, neuropsychologist and a social worker. Neurosci. The “social” neuroscience project was developed in order to work within higher education and respond to the following trends: the proliferation of technology in the classroom, the ubiquity of social media use, the push for more engaging activities, and the push towards engagement with the broader community through our classes. Role of the main olfactory system in recognition between individual spiny mice. Johanna Jarcho, PhD: Developmental social neuroscience of peer relations, Aggression, Reward processing, and learning; Peter Marshall, PhD: Developmental social cognitive neuroscience; Vishnu (Deepu) Murty, PhD: Episodic Memory; Motivation; Decision-making; Neuromodulation; Psychosis – Not accepting cognition and neuroscience students for 2021. These inputs allow the dentate gyrus to regulate, process, and represent both spatial and non-spatial information concurrently, commonly known as “conjunctive encoding” (Kesner, 2013). Given that certain forms of LTP in the hippocampus are mediated by NMDA receptors, Zhao et al. 118, 107–111. The mice were subjected to familiar, altered, and novel context environments. Both the subiculum and the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of the CA1 also receive direct projections from neurons in layer III of the entorhinal cortex (Kajiwara et al., 2008; Maccaferri, 2011). (2000). 3, 225–229. The entorhinal cortex receives input from the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex, both areas that process olfactory information (Boeijinga and Van Groen, 1984). I. (2016). In addition to receiving input from cortical regions, layer V of the entorhinal cortex receives output from the CA1 via the subiculum, which then projects to other brain regions, such as the mamillary nuclei, the thalamus, and the nucleus accumbens (Amaral, 1993; Wible, 2013). Pyramidal cells of the CA2 project back to the CA3 SL region and forward to the CA1 SR subfield (yellow). Over the course of multiple exposures, rodents will become habituated to an intruder and no longer find them as interesting as a completely novel intruder. In addition, there would be greater overlap within the neural code for events that occurred closer in time (Mankin et al., 2015). Comparison of spatial firing characteristics of units in dorsal and ventral hippocampus of the rat. Given this lack of demonstrable LTP, it may be tempting to presume that the CA2 is a highly stable component of the hippocampal circuit, devoid of any plastic functions common to the hippocampus. Miniaturized device activates drugs in a small region deep within the brain. 17, 269–279. 17, 252–258. Acute electrophysiological and light microscopic studies. The high expression of TREK-1 and TREK-2 potassium channels in CA2 relative to other hippocampal subregions was a likely candidate for the lack of LTP, given that these two-pore channels create a potassium-mediated leak current, significantly hyperpolarizing the resting membrane potential and requiring a greater depolarizing current to initiate LTP (Zhao et al., 2007; Caruana et al., 2012). The stratum oriens is a deep, relatively cell-free layer containing the basal dendrites of the pyramidal cells and various interneurons, along with some of the myelinated Schaeffer collateral connections from CA3 to CA1 (Figure 4). Stereotypes are memory structures that we use to help us understand and prepare for social interactions (especially with people we do not know well). In the CA2 and CA3 regions, the stratum lacunosum-moleculare receives inputs from layers II and VI of the entorhinal cortex, while the stratum lacunosum-moleculare in the CA1 receives input from layers III and V of the entorhinal cortex (Witter and Amaral, 1991; van Groen et al., 2003; Figure 4). Tonegawa’s lab hopes to uncover whether these mutations might impair social interactions. The neuroendocrine basis of social recognition. The ventral hippocampus (Figure 1) receives input from the rostromedial band of the entorhinal cortex and sends direct projections to the olfactory bulb, along with bi-directional projections to the amygdala (Saunders et al., 1988; Pitkanen et al., 2000; Cenquizca and Swanson, 2007; Fanselow and Dong, 2010). 362, 17–45. Neurons within the CA2 region visualized with the Golgi-Cox method and magnified at (A) 20x and (B) 40x. Tonegawa is the senior author of the study, which appears in the Sept. 29 online edition of Science. It aims to explore the relationship between cognitive processes and behavior in a social context. In the second trial, the control mice spent significantly more time with the novel mouse than the familiar one, while CA2-lesioned rats demonstrated no difference in the amount of time spent investigating either mouse (Stevenson and Caldwell, 2014). DeVito et al. U.S.A. 100, 6192–6197. Natl. Ferguson, J. N., Young, L. J., and Insel, T. R. (2002). Like memory, emotions arise from activity in distinct regions of the brain, primarily a tiny almond-shaped structure called the amygdala, which integrates emotions and motivation. Additionally, the dorsal hippocampus sends projections to the retrosplenial and anterior cingulate cortices, as well as the caudal and rostral part of the lateral septal nucleus, an area that has been found to regulate social behavior (Fanselow and Dong, 2010; Bredewold et al., 2015). A theory of hippocampal function in memory. Behav. MIT neuroscientists have identified populations of cells that encode distinctive segments of an overall experience. Postmortem changes in the neuroanatomical characteristics of the primate brain: hippocampal formation. J. Comp. Reciprocal connections between the amygdala and the hippocampal formation, perirhinal cortex, and postrhinal cortex in rat. Neurol. Effect of reversible inactivation of the supramammillary nucleus on spatial learning and memory in rats. Understanding how we interact with others is regarded by many as a key challenge facing scientists in the 21st Century. Requirement for hippocampal CA3 NMDA receptors in associative memory recall. Nakazawa, K., Quirk, M. C., Chitwood, R. A., Watanabe, M., Yeckel, M. F., Sun, L. D., et al. Dentate gyrus NMDA receptors mediate rapid pattern separation in the hippocampal network. Received: 01 May 2019; Accepted: 17 September 2019;Published: 01 October 2019. Note: The following article is based on an exchange that occurred in 2005 on the listserv of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. The CA1 serves as a relay station between the CA3 back to the entorhinal cortex, linking the sparse representations in the CA3 with the overlapping representations in the entorhinal cortex. Are unilateral right posterior cerebral lesions sufficient to cause prosopagnosia? Then to go in and control those specific cells is really on the cutting edge.”. Images for download on the MIT News office website are made available to non-commercial entities, press and the general public under a J. Neurosci. Social Work; Sociology; My Content (0) Recently viewed (0) Save Entry; My searches (0) Recently viewed (0) Save Search; Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Ramon y Cajal first described the hippocampus as a region with two distinct areas, which he divided based on the size of the pyramidal neurons that occupied the space: the regio superior, which was the top portion of the hippocampus and consisted of small pyramidal neurons, and the regio inferior, which was the lower portion of the hippocampus and consisted of large pyramidal neurons (Caruana et al., 2012; Dudek et al., 2016). Image more clearly shows the various cell types in each hippocampal subfield. Learn. 3 P. 22. J. Comp. 55, 1–10. Acad. Together, the results from both studies suggest an impairment in social recognition in CA2-lesioned mice. The hippocampus proper is defined by the dentate gyrus and Cornu Ammonis (CA). 19, 705–712. This gives rise to pattern separation, based on the notion that, if only a few units are active per input pattern, there is decreased overlap between the hippocampal representations of different items (Norman and O’Reilly, 2003). Physiol. 522, 1333–1354. functioning. Click through the icons in the image below to explore the neuroscience behind learning, memory, and emotions. As such, the connectivity between the CA2 and these extrahippocampal regions may mediate the neurochemical underpinning of social memory through the release and subsequent activity of these neuropeptides on the target brain regions which may explain the contribution of the hippocampus to social memory processing. (2002). Behav. These results suggest an impairment in memories that involve a temporal component. A credit line must be used when reproducing images; if one is not provided Intrahippocampal and extrahippocampal inputs ( Figure 3 ), incoming information is relayed from point! R. N. 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Ca ) the senior author of the primate hippocampus: an Introduction Howard Eichenbaum Abstract processing. In ( C ) Golgi images illustrating the dorsal portion of the hippocampus was lesioned upon stimulation they. Showing the primary subdivisions CA1 axonal projections to CA3 pyramidal cells in CA2. Considered to play a role in learning and memory ( Gimpl and Fahrenholz, 2001.!